Atlantic Menhaden

Commercial menhaden harvestingCommercial fishing boats pull up a net chock-full of menhaden. Photo by John Surrick/CBF Staff.

The Chesapeake's Unsung Hero

They've been called "the most important fish in the sea."

Small, silvery, and packed with nutritional value, menhaden are filter feeders that consume plankton and in turn are food for striped bass and other important fish, as well as marine mammals and sea birds. They are in effect a critical link in the marine food web. But in 32 of the past 54 years (through 2008), menhaden were overfished, and they are now at their lowest level on record.

Many people have never even heard of this boney, oily, unappetizing fish (also known as bunker or pogy). But without this little unsung hero the Bay's ecosystem would likely collapse. The Bay's other valuable fish like striped bass (rockfish), bluefish, and summer flounder rely heavily on menhaden for nutrition as do sea turtles, osprey, and other fish-eating marine mammals and seabirds.

Further, the Chesapeake Bay is the most important nursery area for Atlantic menhaden. From spring through fall, juveniles as well as adults would be found throughout the entire Bay when the population was healthy.

Why Are they Disappearing?

Chart showing menhaden population between 1955 and 2010

For hundreds of years, menhaden have been a vital part of our natural and national history. American Indians used menhaden as fertilizer for corn; the early settlers processed them for lamp oil. Then, in the late 19th century, the menhaden population began to collapse.

In the past century, all but one state gradually banned the large scale fishing of this important fish; today, only Virginia allows "reduction" (industrial) menhaden fishing. Approximately 80,000 tons of menhaden are removed from the Virginia part of the Bay each year in this fishery. The oil and fish meal from the catch goes into paints, cosmetics, animal feeds, human diet supplements, and both crab and fish bait.

Taking too many young fish both greatly diminishes the spawning potential of the population and reduces their availability to predators. The declining number of menhaden in the Chesapeake Bay has been a concern for many years and has been linked to the chronic disease problem facing Chesapeake striped bass.

By 2006, the annual industrial catch in the Chesapeake was capped. Then in May 2010, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) received an alarming scientific report on the status of Atlantic menhaden—confirmation that the species had been systematically overfished for 32 of the previous 54 years. The population was reported to be at its lowest level on record. The analysis was peer reviewed by independent scientists and remains the best available science on Atlantic menhaden.

What's Being Done?

The fact that this critically important fish's population is at its lowest point on record is a startling wake-up call. So in November of 2011, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) decided in an historic vote to set new standards for how it manages menhaden.

After thousands of letters and e-mails (including 1,036 from CBF advocates) as well as comments at public ASMFC hearings urging greater conservation, the ASMFC voted to adopt new threshold and target fishing rates to allow the menhaden population to increase to a point where it can support a fishery and fulfill its vital ecological role.

This vote was a significant management action on behalf of Atlantic menhaden and it showed just how important this fish is to the marine ecosystem and to other valuable fisheries.

After a year of preparation and technical analysis the ASMFC met again in December 2012, to adopt a new management plan for applying the new standards. The primary tool of the plan, known as Amendment 2, was a total allowable catch for the coast that was divided up into individual quotas for each state. The quotas were 20 percent lower than recent average catches in each state.

The newest menhaden stock assessment will be peer-reviewed over the winter of 2014-15, and the ASMFC will use its results to set future management plans.

Virginia Menhaden Legislation Approved!

Commercial menhaden harvesting. Photo by John Surrick/CBF StaffCommercial fishing boats pull up a net chock-full of menhaden. Photo by John Surrick/CBF Staff.

In a great victory for conservation interests and most importantly, the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem, legislation that brought Virginia into compliance with the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's revised Interstate Fishery Management Plan was overwhelming approved by the state's General Assembly in early 2013. 

Virginia compliance with the coast-wide plan was important not only to restore menhaden numbers and protect marine ecology but to avoid potential federal sanctions that could have hurt Virginia's economy. Sanctions might have included a total shutdown of Virginia's menhaden fishery, which would devastate the livelihoods of hundreds of Virginians employed in the menhaden fishery.

The law reduces Virginia's annual harvest of menhaden in the Bay and off the coast by 20 percent through 2015. That's consistent with the coast-wide conservation plan and a first step toward rebuilding declining stocks of Atlantic menhaden, often called "the most important fish in the sea" because of its critical ecological roles as a filter feeder and forage fish. Studies have shown menhaden numbers have plummeted to their lowest levels on record and that the population is being overfished. Action to better manage menhaden was urgently needed.

This, along with ongoing Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint efforts to improve water quality, will help ensure the long-term success of both the fish and the fishery.


CBF Supports New, Tighter Standards for Menhaden Fishery

CBF strongly supported the new menhaden fishery management plan enacted by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) in December of 2012 that specified a 20 percent reduction in catch coastwide. Beginning with the 2013 fishing season, all of the Atlantic states that harvest menhaden have strived to meet those quotas, which are the first limits ever imposed on this fishery. The new management plan also adopted the following new standards for the menhaden population, which match the fishing rate standards adopted a year earlier.

  • 15% threshold for "spawining stock biomass"
    The immediate aim of the 20-percent catch reduction is to allow the menhaden population to grow to 15 percent of its original, unfished level. This is the bare minimum threshold for protecting menhaden's ecological role and the standard of ASMFC is seeking to achieve immediately.
  • 30% target for "spawning stock biomass"
    The longer term goal of catch reductions is to allow the menhaden population to grow to 30 percent of its original size. At this level, it has a better chance to reproduce in enough numbers to continue its role as a major food source for predators. The ASMFC plans to build the stock of Atlantic menhaden to this level gradually over a period of years.

The new 2014 menhaden stock assessment will be peer-reviewed over the winter of 2014-15, and the ASMFC will use its findings as the basis for an updated management plan to take effect in 2016.

CBF will continue to monitor the ASMFC's management closely to ensure that the Commission and its member states move aggressively to allow this vital species to replenish itself and reclaim its vital role throughout Atlantic coastal waters and the Chesapeake.

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